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Sequence of tense

Trong một câu có 2 mệnh đề, 2 mệnh đề này có quan hệ với nhau về thời gian, như vậy người ta nói 2 mệnh đề này có sự hòa hợp về thì (Sequence of tenses).

Nếu 2 mệnh đề trong một câu tiếng anh có quan hệ về thời gian với nhau thì thì của động từ ở mệnh đề chính sẽ quyết định thì của động từ ở mệnh đề phụ.

Main clauses and Subordinate clauses (Mệnh đề chính và mệnh đề phụ)

Mệnh đề phụ Ví dụ
Present simple +
Present simple My teacher says Hanoi is bigger than Hai Duong
Present continuous I believe that John is sleeping soundly in his bed now
Present perfect
Present perfect continuous
Future simple/ Near future We hope that he will get better soon
Past simple (khi có Adverb of time) He says he was born in 2001


Mệnh đề phụ Ví dụ
Past simple +
Past simple She said she lived alone
Past continuous He believed that she was going with another man then
Past Perfect
Past perfect continuous
Future in the past/ (was/were + going to) We hoped that it would rain soon
Present simple (chân lí) Mrs. Sarah told us that an hour has 60 minutes


Mệnh đề phụ Ví dụ
Present perfect +
Present simple They have just said it has fog in Hanoi today


Mệnh đề phụ Ví dụ
Future perfect +
Present simple We will have gone out for a picnic by the time you finish the housework


Mệnh đề phụ Ví dụ
Past perfect +
Simple past The film had just begun before we arrived


Main clauses and Adverbial clauses of time (Mệnh đề chính và Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian)

Các trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian: WHEN = AS, AS SOON AS, BEFORE, AFTER, SINCE, WHILE, UNTIL = TILL, NO SOONER...THAN..., HARDLY...WHEN...

Present tenses
Present simple
Present continuous
Present perfect
Present perfect continuous
+ Present tenses
  • When Hien gets bad marks, she always smiles happily.
  • I often drink coffee while I am doing my homework.


Past tenses
Past simple
Past continuous
Past perfect
Past perfect continuous
+ Past tenses
  • She started to run when she saw a big dog.


Future tenses
Future simple + Present tenses
  • When there is an emergency, I will call you at once.
  • By the time he wakes up, we will have finished the work.

Một số trường hợp khác

Hiện tại hoàn thành
  • It's time since S2 (last) Vp1
  • S1 have/has (not) Vp2 since S2 Vp1
Đã đến lúc phải làm gì
  • It's (not) (high) time S + Vp1
Đã trễ giờ để làm gì
  • It's (not) (high) time S have/has Vp2
Sự hòa hợp giữa BY THE TIME
*BY THE TIME S1 V(s/es), S2 will have Vp2
              S1 Vp1, S2 had Vp2